“Cinematography & Lighting” – Gregg Toland (Week 1 Lecture Notes)

by Gregg Toland

The camera, when you get right down to cases, is the eyes of the audience. Thus the cameraman is the censor (I dislike the word but it is applicable here) over the most important of the five physical senses of millions of entertainment seekers. Great is his crime, artistically speaking, if he violates this trust by failing to present in the most telling manner the dramatic content of the plot.
The cameraman’s further responsibilities are both artistic and economic, inasmuch as he is a factor in an art-industry.

From the art side of the picture, there are three things he must know:

  1. The mechanics of the camera.
  2. Where to place the camera, and,
  3. How to light the scene to be photographed.

The first is purely routine. The second and third functions involve the creative ingredient. The placement of the camera determines the angle from which the action is to be viewed by audiences. The importance of this angle to dramatic effect cannot be overemphasized. The lighting of the scene is an equally potent factor in the determination of dramatic effect, in addition to its basic function—visibility.

To the eye of an expert cameraman, the manner in which a set is lighted is an infallible key to the mood to be established. He can step onto a lighted set which he has never seen before and predict with astonishing accuracy what kind of scene is about to be photographed.
Toland on Cinematography (BlackBoard Item)//


Suggestions for Cinematography & Lighting Papers (Week 1 Handout)

  1. Keep the paper to a maximun of six (6) pages and a minimum of four (4) pages double spaced.
  2. Check papers for spelling and grammer errors. Presentations will be a factor in the grading process.
  3. You may choose any films you wish. You may reference articles in industry and trade publications, academic journals, books, reviews etc. You may, alternatively, present your best guesses about how the visual atmospheres were created.
  4. Present a one-paragraph plot summary as an Introduction. The remainder of the paper should deal with the cinematographer and lighting aspects.
  5. Treat the idea of how the cinematographer used composition, camera movement, lens choices (wide-angle, normal, telephoto), lighting techniques, diffusion, color correction, or, perhaps, color enhancement to create various visual atmospheres.In this regard, explain any particular challenges that required unusually imaginative solutions. Include the use of gels, diffusion materials, mixed lighting sources, etc. Consider the physical set-ups and do your best to describe them.
  6. Describe the resultant visual “look” of the atmospheres created in #5 above. Consider the elements of softness or hardness, the interplay of light and shadow, the ways in which the image, as a consequence of lighting applications, is shaped or sculpted…how camera movement or lack thereof complements the timing of the plot. The physical look of the results is important here.
  7. Lastly, give your personal impressions of the emotional and psychological impact that results directly from how these visual atmospheres complement the content of the story. How does it affect you, the viewer, on an emotional level. How does it feel, personally.

Suggestions for Papers//

Visual Story Telling Techniques (W1 HANDOUT)

Visual Story Telling Methods

A. Basic Sequence
B. Montage
C. Mise-en-Scene

Basic Sequence:

(LS) Long Shot
(MS) Medium Shot
(CU) Close-up
(ECU) Extreme Close-up
(RA) Reverse Angle
(CA) Cut-a-way

Montage:  A series of seemingly unrelated shots which, when edited, tell a story.

Mise-en-Scene: A single shot, from a fixed postion, which uses character movements from front to rear to build all the elements of Long Shot, Medium Shot, and Close-Up without moving the camera.

180 Degree Rule:
This applies only to Basic Sequence. An imaginary line is drawn throught the scene and all shots within the scene are made on only one side of that line. The polar extremes are also acceptable. This maintains a continuity of screen direction for editing purposes. You may break the rule by inserting Cut-a-way or polar angle shots.


180 Degree RULE Diagram

Visual Storytelling Methods//

Gregg Toland & CITIZEN KANE (1941) (Week 1 Lecture Notes)

Hero? Or heel?
Image by Kevin via Flickr

By John Budde

Many consider it the greatest film ever. Some question the logic in telling the same story twice (as simulated newsreel and as narrative)…but one thing is certain. It is, without question, one of the most innovative films of its time and, for most, a milestone in the course of modern cinema technique. It remains, nearly seventy years later, one of the most talked about films of all time, and a significant point of inspiration for most cinematographers.

There are good reasons for this, not the least of which is the stunning departure in cinematography and lighting from the more conventional approaches of its time. As Director of Photography, Gregg Toland experienced a truly collaborative relationship with Director Orson Welles. Welles gave Toland his complete support and encouragement, with both realizing a mutual goal to create a film that would be unique not only in form and structure, but also in look and feel.

To that end, Toland and Welles employed many innovative techniques and approaches to create a new visual approach in support of a new approach to storytelling. Low angle shots, including ceilings (unheard of in its day), give Kane an intimidating and dominating sense of superiority and free the scenes from the artificiality of lighting from an overhead grid, allowing stand-mounted lighting to simulate a more natural look, as though light is motivated by windows, lamps and fireplaces. Wide-angle lenses with high speed film stocks and twin carbon-arc lighting allowed for significant luminance and small lens iris settings, creating great depth of field so that shots could be in focus from just forward of the lens to an impressive depth of distance in the backgrounds.

Long, “mise-en-scene” inspired shots, with character movements front-to-back (close-up to wide shot, all in a single take)
allowed for breaking free of the conventional basic sequence, thus creating a sense of the absence of the camera, pulling the audience, psychologically, into the frame. Imaginative transitions between scenes and brilliantly simple effects serve to connect different shots in seamless continuum, or to separate them with meaning and purpose. The reporters, who serve to drive the story forward, but who are individually unimportant, are presented as ghostly shadow figures, black silhouettes in the otherwise visible environments, who search relentlessly to unravel the mystery of Kane’s final words.

With its many departures from tradition, CITIZEN KANE stands as the visual textbook for thousands of cinematographers around the world, and Gregg Toland’s contribution remains widely discussed and emulated within the film industry and continually studied within the broader scope of global academic communities.